Asked by Anonymous
Sorry to hear that you didn’t get an offer from a UK medical school.
Where are you from?
You are right, it is four years for the accelerated graduate entry program. In most universities this means the first and second years are combined into one, which means there is a very intense opening to the course! The second half of the course, the clinical years, are the same length for all students.
After that, you graduate and start work with everyone else, there are no extra hoops to jump through because your course was shorter!
Hope this helps.
There are four types of hypersensitivity reactions.
- Type I is IgE-mediated and occurs very quickly after exposure. It is associated with allergens such as bee stings, peanuts, and certain medications, to name a few. This can lead to a life-threatening condition called anaphylaxis.
- Type II hypersensitivity reactions are cytotoxic/antibody-mediated. Some examples in this category are hemolytic reactions, goodpasture syndrome and hyperacute graft rejection.
- Type III is known as immune complex/IgG/IgM mediated and includes certain diagnoses like hypersensitivity pneumonitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis nodosa and serum sickness.
- Type IV is known as delayed or cell-mediated hypersensitivity reaction. Examples include chronic graft rejections, purified protein derivative (PPD), latex, nickel and poison ivy.
A quick mnemonic to use to remember these is ACID:
- Type I - Allergic
- Type II - Cytotoxic
- Type III - Immune complex deposition
- Type IV - Delayed
A ‘vein-viewer' works by using infrared light to image the presence of veins underneath the skin: The IR light is absorbed by the deoxygenated haemoglobin within veins. The locations of absorption and reflection are detected and the machine generates a corresponding projection using visible light. Find out more about how these devices are used in medicine in this video: http://youtu.be/lk0HMqwreIo
M - Metastasis
A - Abscess
I - Infarct (subacute phase)
C - Contusion
D - Demyelinating disease (eg. tumefactive MS)
An alternative is DR MAGIC of course, which is what you may like to call yourself if you can remember the list! Although you can’t possibly know by looking at the single images, for what it is worth, the above cases are; A = metastasis, B = abscess, C = radiation necrosis, D = GBM, E = demyelination, F = contusion.
45-Year-Old Man with a Rash
In the latest Case Record of the Massachusetts General Hospital, a 45-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of diffuse, purple, blanching livedo over his arms and legs and signs of severe sepsis. Three days before presentation, the patient was bitten on his hands and forearms while bathing his dog.
Dromedary hump - a normal variant of the left renal contour caused by the splenic impression. The hump can be mistaken for a true renal mass and hence is considered one of the renal pseudotumors. An awareness of this anatomical variant is important when interpreting medical imaging.
Image courtesy of Dr Matt Skalski, Illustration editor for Radiopaedia.org.